Bottom of ASEAN: Impact of Rushed Investment in “Last Frontier” Countries – Burma/Myanmar, Cambodia and Laos on Labour and Migration (2014)

The “Bottom of ASEAN” discussion paper is an analysis of the impact of rushed investment in “Last Frontier” countries – Myanmar/Burma, Cambodia, and Lao PDR on labour and migration. The paper points out that poor labour standards and extremely low wages cause many workers from these developing economies to migrate to neighbouring countries. Once they migrate, they frequently suffer further exploitation and discrimination, which is often justified by policymakers and the business sectors as “better than the situation in the countries of origin”. As a result, workers have no way of escaping exploitation at the bottom of the supply chain, whether at home or in destination countries. It outlines recommendations to the governments and relevant stakeholders, and advocates for improved labour protection and fairer wages for all workers at the “Bottom of ASEAN”, whether they are migrant workers who have moved internally within their home country or are working in other countries in the region.

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